This page contains a list of references for topics related to faculty technology engagement.

Most bibliographical references are listed with a quote of the article abstract, but in the case of sources such as book chapters, a brief summary is included.

This list is not meant to be exhaustive and is a work in progress. If you know of any sources that might belong here, feel free to send me a quick note at

The references are divided into categories as listed below.


Factors in Faculty Technology Adoption

Faculty developer approach

Kuhlenschmidt, S. (2010). Issues in technology and faculty development. In K. J. Gillespie & D. L. Robertson (Eds.). (2010). A guide to faculty development (259–274). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

This chapter discusses the different challenges and factors that faculty developers need to take into account when trying to promote educational technology to faculty.

Excerpt from introduction: Faculty developers face four tasks in effectively using technology in their work. The first task is understanding faculty members' attitudes toward technology. The second is choosing appropriate technology. The third is using knowledge of clients and objectives to help faculty members integrate technology with teaching. The fourth is implementing appropriate technology for the various programs and goals of faculty development centers (Kuhlenschmidt, 2010, p. 259).

The author goes on to discuss faculty members’ responses to technology, how to evaluate technologies, integrating technology into teaching, and technology for faculty developers. She goes on to caution that “the key when working with technologies is starting with the problem to be solved or objective of the task and knowing the capacities of the target audience” (Kuhlenschmidt, 2010, p. 271).


Cook, R., Ley, K., Crawford, C., & Warner, A. (2009). Motivators and Inhibitors for University Faculty in Distance and e‐learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(1), 149-163.

Abstract: This article reports on four United States studies of how rewards systems, extrinsic and intrinsic, could play an important role in providing incentives for university faculty to teach (or remain teaching) electronic and distance education courses. The first three studies conducted prior to 2003 reported faculty were inherently motivated to teach e‐learning and distance education. The fourth study in 2003 reported key findings that differed from the earlier studies. Using a principal components analysis, the researchers found nine indicators of motivation to participate or not participate in electronic or distance education. The implications from the fourth study indicated that while faculty members were inherently committed to helping students, faculty members wanted their basic physiological needs met by university administration through extrinsic motivators, such as salary increases and course releases.

Faculty level of education and training on educational technology tools

Daher, Tareq, & Lazarevic, Bojan. (2014). Emerging Instructional Technologies: Exploring the Extent of Faculty Use of Web 2.0 Tools at a Midwestern Community College. TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 58(6), 42-50.

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to provide insight into the several aspects of instructional use of emerging web-based technologies. The study first explores the extent of Web 2.0 technology integration into face-to-face classroom activities. In this phase, the main focus of research interests was on the types and dynamics of Web 2.0 tools used by community college instructors. In the second phase, we were predominantly interested in instructors’ preferences toward tools and the major barriers instructors confront in integrating these tools in a traditional educational setting. The study reveals the extent of instructors’ use of Web 2.0 tools in the classroom relates to a) their level of education and b) training on the tools. Results clearly indicate that level of education and current use of web 2.0 technologies in instruction are major determinants of the instructors’ preferences toward different groups of Web 2.0 tools. Finally, lack of faculty training opportunities was identified as the main barrier for using Web 2.0 technologies. The study offers research based evidence which undoubtedly represent the current trends and issues in the process of technology integration into course curriculum at a community college level. Considering obtained findings, we suggest implementation of an institutional and systematic approach to reinforce inclusion of Web 2.0 technologies in traditional teaching and learning (Tareq & Bojan, 2014, p. 42).

Student engagement in technology-rich classrooms

Gebre, E., Saroyan, A., & Bracewell, R. (2014). Students' engagement in technology rich classrooms and its relationship to professors' conceptions of effective teaching. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(1), 83-96.

Abstract: This study examined dimensions of student engagement in technology rich classrooms and  the relationship of this engagement to professors' conceptions of effective teaching. We collected questionnaire data from 332 students and analysed the data in relation to the finding of another study (Authors, forthcoming) involving 13 professors' course‐specific conceptions of effective teaching. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation revealed four dimensions of student engagement: cognitive and applied engagement, social engagement, reflective engagement and goal clarity. Subsequent multivariate and univariate analyses of variance showed that the extent of students' cognitive and applied engagement and social engagement is related significantly to professors' conceptions of effective teaching. The study has implication on design and assessment of technology‐rich learning environments and on faculty development programs involving technology use in their teaching (Gebre, Saroyan, & Bracewell, 2014, p. 83)


Herman, Jennifer H. (2013). Faculty Incentives for Online Course Design, Delivery, and Professional Development. Innovative Higher Education, 38(5), 397-410.

Abstract: This quantitative study investigated the types and frequency of incentives for online instruction at non-profit institutions of higher education with an established teaching and learning development unit. While up to 70 % of institutions offer incentives, this support is not universal and varies by incentive type and purpose (Herman, 2013, p. 397).

Excerpt from conclusion: This study’s findings may be helpful to those making decisions about the use of incentives for online instructors by providing benchmarking data on the types and frequency of incentives currently in use. The variety of incentives and examples from other institutions may also provide ideas for possible incentives. Also, this study revealed that the most frequently offered incentives, such as financial, are not always aligned with incentives that most faculty members have reported as important. This suggests that, when selecting incentives for faculty members, institutions may be able to improve the efficacy of or satisfaction with the incentives by communicating with faculty members regarding what incentives they would find motivating or valuable for developing an online course, teaching online, or participating in faculty development programs for online instructors (Herman, 2013, p. 409).


Overbaugh, Richard, & Lu, Ruiling. (2008). The Impact of a NCLB-EETT Funded Professional Development Program on Teacher Self-Efficacy and Resultant Implementation. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(1), 43-61.

Abstract: In response to the need to train teachers to effectively integrate technology into elementary and secondary education, a teacher professional development program funded by a federal grant provided a selection of instructional technology integration courses to K-12 teachers. This study investigated the impact of these courses on the course participants' self-efficacy in learning about and implementing instructional technology. The study also explored the differential effects of these courses on participants' self-efficacy due to different demographic characteristics. The data analyses from the pre-/post-/follow-up surveys completed by 377 course participants revealed that the grant-funded courses did increase participants' confidence and competence in technology integration. No significant difference was found on course effects between participants with different demographic characteristics. The qualitative data from interviews with the course participants confirmed the survey results, and the positive perceptions of the course effectiveness from the participants suggested an overall success of the program (Overbaugh & Lu, 2008, p. 43).

Faculty demographic factors

Paver, Jonathan, Walker, David A., & Hung, Wei-Chen. (2014). Adjunct Faculty Characteristics that May Predict Intention to Integrate Technology into Instruction. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 38(10), 859-872.

Abstract: This study examined the demographic factors that predict intention to integrate technology into instruction by community college adjunct faculty. Regression model findings indicated that the demographic characteristics of years of teaching experience, teaching discipline, hours of preparation time, and years of experience using computers were predictors of intention to integrate technology. Other literature-based characteristics such as age, gender, and participation in professional development activities, although not noted predictors in the current study, still warrant further examination to provide additional insight into their potential ability to predict technology use by community college adjunct faculty (Paver, Walker, Hung, 2014, p. 859).


Training Methods and Approaches

Ellis, D. E., & Ortquist-Ahrens, L. (2010). Practical suggestions for programs and activities. In K. J. Gillespie & D. L. Robertson (Eds.). (2010). A guide to faculty development (117–132). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

This chapter provides a comprehensive list of options for programs and activities that can be used in faculty training on educational technology. The options are categorized under one-time events, such as workshops, institutes and academies, symposia and conferences, or ongoing programming such as book clubs or discussion clubs, communities of practice and learning communities, certificate programs, mentoring, websites and grants. Advice is also given on organizing events and how to coordinate and oversee ongoing programming.

Excerpt from conclusion: Running faculty development programs can be invigorating. Numerous options exist to help you with your work; you can find many variations on these ideas through articles, Web sites, conferences, and discussions with colleagues. No one right mix of programming and activities exists. The needs of your instructors, the institutional culture, and the mandate of your program should help to guide your decisions (Ellis & Ortquist-Ahrens, 2010, p. 130).


Kaminski, K., & Bolliger, D. (2012). Technology, Learning, and the Classroom: Longitudinal Evaluation of a Faculty Development Model. The Journal of Faculty Development, 26(1), 13-17.

Abstract: Technology, Learning, and the Classroom, a workshop designed to jump-start faculty's use of instructional technology in face-to-face classrooms, was offered as a week-long intensive workshop and once-a-week session over a semester. Faculty were interviewed five years after participation to determine the longitudinal effects, differences in opinion and adoption between the two different models, and other factors that supported or inhibited adoption. Results indicate the importance of immersion and cross college aspects of the week-long intensive workshop, perceived advantages for implementing specific technologies such as online discussion and digital video, and local support within colleges were key aspects for technology integration.


Research Frameworks

Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

Paver, Jonathan, Walker, David A., & Hung, Wei-Chen. (2014). Factors that Predict the Integration of Technology for Instruction by Community College Adjunct Faculty. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 38(1), 68-85.

Abstract: Community colleges have responded to the increased use of technology for instruction by providing support and professional development opportunities for faculty. However, differences in perceptions, expectations, and opportunities exist between full-time faculty at community colleges and their adjunct colleagues when it comes to adopting technology into instruction. Because adjunct faculty represent 68.5% of faculty teaching at community colleges (U.S. Department of Education, 2007), it is imperative  to understand their intentions to integrate technology into instruction. This study adopted the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior (DTPB) as a theoretical framework to survey 130 community college adjunct faculty member's intentions to participate in technology integration. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data collected. Results showed that DTPB was useful in explaining much of the variance in the intention to integrate technology into teaching by community college adjunct faculty. Results also suggested that community college administrators can play an important role toward increasing technology integration by adjunct faculty through leveraging types of influence in support of behavioral intention. Research implications for instructional technologists at community colleges indicated that professional development programs should be designed based on the significant predictors in the DTPB (Paver, Walker, Hung, 2014, p. 68).

Community of Practice

Drouin, Michelle, Vartanian, Lesa Rae, & Birk, Samantha. (2014). A Community of Practice Model for Introducing Mobile Tablets to University Faculty. Innovative Higher Education, 39(3), 231-245.

Abstract: We examined the effectiveness of a community of practice (CoP) model for introducing tablets to 139 faculty members at a higher education institution. Using a CoP within a systems model, we used large-and small-group mentorship to foster collaboration among faculty members. Most faculty members agreed that the project was well organized and activities were useful. In terms of measurable outcomes, many participants had developed plans for or completed scholarly activities related to tablets. Our findings support the use of CoP models to integrate technology within higher education. Additionally, they support such integrations as proof of concept for large, whole-campus technology integrations (Drouin, Vartanian, Birk, 2014, p. 231).